Causes of the defeat of French and success of British in India
Following are the causes of French defeat and British success in India:
The French company was a government body, so its decisions etc. used to come late and officially. The officers of the company did not have the right to do anything on their own, whereas the English company was completely independent in its affairs, due to this its people took any step from the heart and also changed their policy as needed. The change in government did not have a special effect on the English company, while the French company was completely affected by it.
Government Help for English Companies
Although the English company was completely independent, it used to get government help due to many reasons. The company used to give loans to the government, due to which the government remained indebted to the company. Apart from this, the progress of the company was also considered good by the government in its own interest. Many parliament members were also members of the company, which encouraged the government to give government assistance for the company’s progress. On the contrary, the company used to get various types of notices, far from getting aid from the French government. In such a situation the French company could not progress. Therefore, she also experienced difficulty in running the expenses of the war, whereas the British Company had no such difficulty.
Better Economic Condition of English Company
The economic condition of the English company was so good that it could easily fight even the longest war. The main reason for this was that it completely encouraged trade along with war. In this way, the English company was never financially troubled while running war and trade side by side. In contrast, the French-company did not pay any special attention to trade during the war. Due to this financially the French company was troubled.
Capability of English Generals
The British generals were more capable and experienced than the French generals. Generals like Clive, Arthur Coote, Laurence etc. were superior to the French generals in every respect.
Co-operation among the English Officers
There was a feeling of cooperation among the British officers. Not only this, the matter of the lowest official was also considered by the higher authority, for example at the time of the siege of Arcot, Clive’s advice was accepted, while he was appointed to a small post, but the French had a great deal. The spirit of cooperation was also lacking among the officers, Lavudonne and Dupley did not get along well. According to Sarkar and Dutt – “The French motives fell into disarray because of the jealousy of the tradition of officers and generals. Because of this jealousy, even a small plan failed to succeed.
Better Condition of English Colonics
The condition of the settlements set up by the British was proper from both commercial and strategic point of view. In contrast, French settlements were not justified either from a strategic point of view or from a commercial point of view. The Madras of the British was much better than the French Pondicherry. Because of this also the French had to face defeat.
Naval Superiority of English
In 1558, after destroying the Spanish Armada, the British had fully established their authority over the ocean. The British were able to provide military assistance to India from England in every odd situation. On the contrary, the French had to face defeat.
Diplomacy of William Pitt
In 1758, William Pitt was the War Minister of England. He acted diplomatically. He engaged France in European wars in such a way that he did not get an opportunity to pay attention to his Indian Empire. Apart from this, he also kept entangled Prussia with France. In such a situation the defeat of the French became certain.
European Countries were against France
One of the main reasons for the failure of the French was that European politics was against France. On the other hand, France had to be engaged in many wars at that time. Being trapped in European wars, France could not protect its Indian Empire, while England remained separate from them despite being related to the war in Europe. Apparently they fought less.
According to Dr. Ishwari Prasad, “The French failed in India because they had failed in Europe.”
Better English Naval Bases
The British had a good naval base like Bombay, while the French did not have such a good base. The British had received many benefits from the port of Bombay.
South India was Unsuitable for French Base
The French concentrated their sovereignty in the south of India. This place was not fair from any point of view. Because of this also the French had to face failure.
Recall of Duplex
The government made a great mistake by recalling Duplex back in 1754. After this, his successor was not capable enough to defeat the British.
The French armies were also defeated due to the short-sightedness of the French general. Lally was a stubborn person. He put the situation in Hyderabad in jeopardy by calling Busy to Hyderabad to attack Madras.
Conquest of Bengal by English
With the coming of Bengal to the British, the French could not compete with them. Bengal is a place suitable for prosperity and historical point of view. According to Vincent A. Smith, “Even Napoleon and Alexander could not compete with the mighty lord of Bengal by gaining the south.”
Indiscipline in French Officers
French officers did not pay any special attention to discipline. They often ignored the orders of his superiors, which cast doubt on their success.
Renunciation of Dupleix’s policy
According to some historians, the French power was also harmed by the abandonment of Dupleix’s policy by his successors.
Late arrival of French
French came to India much late than other European races. In such a situation, they could not make their position better than the British. The British had come earlier and made arrangements for proper place etc. and had also made their power strong. So the French failed because of this also.
Functions of the French King
Louis 15th was ruling at that time in France. Its extravagance and the policy of relying on the advice of sycophants greatly helped the French to be defeated. He was always involved in the dirty politics of Europe.