The Battle of Buxar was fought in September-October 1764 between the English East India Company and Nawab Mir Qasim of Bengal, Shuja-ud-daula, Nawab of Awadh, Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. This war was a very important event in Indian history, which put the seal of British rule on India.
- Location: Near Buxar
- Date: 22/23 October 1764
- Result: British victory
Main Causes of the Battle of Buxar (1764)
Following are some of the major causes of the Battle of Buxar (1764):
1. Reign of Mir Jafar
After the Battle of Plassey in 1757 AD, Mir Jafar became the Nawab of Bengal. He was absolutely incompetent as a ruler. Since he was made the Nawab by the British, the real ruler was the British. Mir Jafar was a nominal Nawab. And all the power was in the hands of the English general Clive. He kept looting Bengal arbitrarily. In the joy of becoming the Nawab, Mir Jafar had also gifted a lot of money to the British, due to which the economic condition of the state became absolutely pathetic.
Mir Jafar was a fanatic. So Clive started provoking him against the Hindus. Hindus started being removed from high positions and the Hindu rulers started being abused. From here the Hindu-Muslim animosity started, which has spread like poison in the society till date. Under the guise of Clive, Mir Jafar behaved very badly with Raja Ram Narayan, the governor of Bihar, Raja Ram Singh of Orissa, Yugal Singh, the ruler of Purnia, and the Diwan Raja Durlab Rai in the court of Murshidabad, due to which there was great discontent among the Hindus.
2. Invasion of the Mughal Emperor Aligauhar
Ali Gauhar who later ascended the throne of Delhi under the name of Shah Alam II. He was the elder son of Mughal Emperor Alamgir II. He was nominally the Subedar of Bihar, Bengal and Orissa because the Nawabs of those regions were ruling everywhere. Therefore, in order to establish his authority over them, he attacked with the help of Shuja-ud-daula, the Nawab of Awadh in February 1759. Raja Ram Narayan, the governor of Bihar, after getting the information, sought help from Mir Jafar. Mir Jafar sent an English army under Clive’s leadership to help. Aligohar was banished. He proceeded to attack again in 1760 AD, but after getting the news of his father’s death, he returned on the way to sit on the throne of Delhi.
3. Dutch Invasion
The Dutch and the British were rivals of each other. With the increasing influence of the British, the Dutch feared that their trading power in Bengal would come to an end. So they wanted to take on the British. At the same time, Mir Jafar was also fed up with the deeds of the British. wanted to get rid So he assured aid to the Dutch. As a result, the Dutch attacked on November 25, 1795, but they were finally defeated in the Battle of Bedara. Now the power and influence of the British increased significantly. His morale increased greatly.
4. Revolution of 1760 AD
As long as Clive remained here, the real power of the state remained in his hands, but on February 5, 1760, he returned to England. After that Governor Hallwell removed Mir Jafar from the throne and made Mir Qasim (son-in-law of Mir Jafar) the Nawab. This event is known as revolution. Because without any bloodshed, one Nawab was removed and another Nawab was placed on the throne. This incident further boosted the spirit of the British.
5. Reign of Mir Qasim
Mir Qasim was a capable ruler and a man of independent thoughts. He started trying to improve the situation in Bengal to fulfill the terms of the treaty made with the British. He removed the rowdy landlords and appointed trusted people. He did many things for the development in the field of economic and agriculture. To get rid of the influence of the British, he moved his capital from Murshidabad to Munger and opened a factory for making guns and bullets there. By improving the army, he was equipped with new weapons. Then he started paying attention to the British who were abusing ‘Dastak‘. In 1717 AD, the Mughal emperor had given a ‘farman‘ to the company to do free trade which was called ‘Dastak’. The employees of the company wanted to take over the company as well as the private business. At the same time, Mir Jafar also wanted to get rid of him after getting fed up with the misdeeds of the British. So he assured aid to the Dutch. As a result, the Dutch attacked on November 25, 1795, but they were finally defeated in the Battle of Bedara. Now the power and influence of the British. increased significantly. His morale increased greatly.
6. Mir Qasim and the British
The British started preparing for war thinking of removing Mir Qasim from the throne and installing another Nawab. In this connection munitions were being sent from Calcutta to Patna by a boat. Mir Qasim seized that boat by stopping it in Munger. On this, the defiant English general Alice, based in Patna, captured Patna. The Calcutta Council declared war against him. The Nawab came to Patna in anger and killed 148 Britishers with the sword. At that time the Nawab was defeated in the battle of Patna. He fled to the rulers of the neighboring kingdom of Awadh.
7. Alliance of Mir Qasim, Shuja-Ud-Daula and Shah Alam II
When Mir Qasim reached the place of the Nawab of Awadh after fleeing from Patna, the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II was also there at that time. Together, all three made a pact to take revenge on the British. Accordingly, the combined armies of the three proceeded to fight. This became the immediate cause of the war. A fierce battle took place between the two armies in the field of Buxar (September 1764) but in the end the British army won on 22 October 1764. This was an extraordinary event in Indian history.
Consequences of the Battle of Buxar
The consequences of the battle of Buxar proved to be very dire, disastrous, permanent and far-reaching. Its main consequences/results were as follows:
- The influence of the British in Bengal was completely solidified because three powerful rulers of North India had been defeated in it. Now the British became the de facto rulers of Bengal.
- The status of Indian soldiers was exposed.
- The Mughal emperor was compelled to surrender to the British. English influence prevailed on him too.
- The ambition of the Nawab of Awadh was over and he too became dependent on the British.
- The army of the Nawab of Bengal was reduced and arrangements were made to have an English resident in the court. Now he could not think of anything against the British.
- The British got the Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa and dyarchy was established in Bengal.
- The British continued to plunder Bengal without any hindrance. There was no one left to stop them.
- Now the British became not only the Nawab of Bengal but also the creator of fortune. The Nawab of Bengal was at his mercy.
Thus we can say that the battle of Buxar is a very important event in Indian history. From this, the British started talking about establishing an empire and eventually established the empire, which ended in 1947.
Who Fought Battle of Buxar?
Battle of Buxar was fought in September-October 1764 between the English East India Company and Nawab Mir Qasim of Bengal, Shuja-ud-daula, Nawab of Awadh, Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II.
What were the main causes of the Battle of Buxar?
Main Causes of the Battle of Buxar are listed below:
1. Reign of Mir Jafar
2. Invasion of the Mughal Emperor Ali Gauhar
3. Dutch Invasion
4. Mir Qasim and the British
5. Revolution of 1760 AD
6. Alliance of Mir Qasim, Shuja-Ud-Daula and Shah Alam II
7. Reign of Mir Qasim