About Asia: Important Countries, Seas, Oceans, Gulfs, Straits, Mountains, Rivers and etc


  • Asia is the largest continent in the world
  • It covers about 30% of the total land surface of the earth
  • It is situated entirely in Northern hemisphere except for some Indonesian group of islands

Asian Borders:

  1. In the north, Asia is surrounded by – Arctic ocean
  2. In the east, Asia is surrounded by -Pacific ocean,
  3. Western Asia – Mediterranean Sea
    • Asia is separated from Europe by Urals, Caspian Sea, The Black Sea, Caucasus mountains, and strait of Dardanelles in the west.
    • Separated from Africa by the Red Sea and Isthmus of Suez
    • Separated from North America by Bering strait.



  • Shanghai: Premier port
  • Nanking: textile hub
  • Guangzhou: Lies at the mouth of Sikiang River. Famous for iron-steel, textiles, chemicals, handicrafts, and food processing industries


  • Japan is the most industrialized country in Asia with little coal reserves but has highly developed hydroelectric power resources.
  • Some important Islands of Japan: HONSHU, HOKKAIDO, SHIKOKU, KYUSHU
  • Kyoto: Famous for traditional handicrafts and Climate Change convention (Kyoto Protocol)
  • Kawasaki: Famous for Marine engineering, cement, and glassworks
  • Yokohama: Thriving port with the major center for precision engineering
  • Tokyo: Heavy electrical engineering industry
  • Nagasaki: Important industrial town of Kyushu island


  • Capital – Seoul
  • Ulsan – one of the Largest shipyards in the world
  • Population: 5.17 crores (2019)
  • Currency – South Korean Won (KRW)


  • Capital – Jakarta
  • Occupies most of the Malay archipelago.
  • Lies between Indian and Pacific ocean
  • Island group of Indonesia: Sumatra, Java , Borneo, Bali, Lesser Sunda land, Sulawesi, Timor and western half of New Guinea island
    • Jakarta: Important port – handles all imports to other domestic ports. Textiles, oil milling, rubber processing, steelwork, food processing’.
    • Java: Separated from Sumatra island by Sunda strait
    • Bandung: The first NAM conference was held here on September 1-6, 1961. It is a Volcanic plateau.


  1. It lies at the eastern end of Strait of Malacca.
  2. It occupies a relatively central position among the islands.
  3. The major naval base and major Centerport.


  1. It is one of the leading producer of oil
  2. Has world’s one of the biggest LNG plants


  1. It lies west of Pacific Ocean.
  2. 75% of its population lives on Luzon island.
  3. Its Capital city Manila is headquarters of International Rice research institute.
  4. Luzon in north and Mindanao in south are two large islands


  1. Capital city – Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city are major centers for engineering and food processing industries.

About LAOS

  1. It is the only landlocked southeast Asian nation.
  2. Its Borders connect with Thailand, Myanmar, China, Vietnam, and Cambodia.
  3. Its Capital city Vientiane is located on the Mekong river.


  1. Malaysia lies between Thailand and Singapore.
  2. Ipoh: Famous for Tin mining and karst topography.


  1. It is located south of Laos between Thailand and Vietnam.
  2. Its capital city Phnom Penh is located on the Mekong river.


  1. Myanmar has a sharing border with India, Bangladesh,China, Laos, Thailand, and the Bay of Bengal.
  2. Famous for Buddhist temples “Pagodas” like Shwedagon Pagoda, Ananda Temple, Shwesandaw Pagoda and etc.
  3. Mandalay (the second-largest city in Myanmar) is on left bank of the Irrawaddy river.
  4. Capital city Yangoon (the largest city of Myanmar)  (formerly known as Rangoon) is a leading port and famous for oil refining, steel, food processing industries.


  1. Thailand shares borders with Myanmar, Laos, and Cambodia.
  2. It is known as rice bowl of Southeast Asia and the Land of white elephants.
  3. BANGKOK: situated on the Chao Phraya river. It is a leading industrial city famous for shipbuilding.


  1. PACIFIC OCEAN: Bering sea, Sea of Okhotsk, Yellow sea, South China sea, Java sea, Banda sea
  2. INDIAN OCEAN: bay of Bengal, Arabian sea, Red sea
  3. ARCTIC OCEAN: Kara sea, Laptev sea, East Siberian sea


  1. INDIAN OCEAN: Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Gulf of Aden
  2. PACIFIC OCEAN: Gulf of Tonkin, Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Bo Hai


  1. Bering strait: It Separates Asia and North America; It connects East Siberian sea with the Bering sea
  2. Formosa(Taiwan) strait: It separates Taiwan and China and connects the East and south china sea.
  3. Malacca Strait: It separates the Malaya peninsula and Sumatra and connects the Java sea and the Bay of Bengal
  4. Sunda strait: It separates Java and Sumatra & connects Java Sea and Indian Ocean
  5. Strait of Hormuz: It separates UAE and Iran and connects the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf
  6. Strait of Bosphorous: It separates Asia and Europe and connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara
  7. Strait of Dardenelles: It separates Asia and Europe and connects the Sea of Marmara and Mediterranean sea


  1. Himalayan ranges lie in the North of Gangetic plains. It is an example of Fold Mountains. Mt.Everest is the highest peak Himalayan ranges.
  2. Karakoram Range lies north of the Himalayas. Godwin Austin(K2) is its highest peak
  3. Kailash range lies East of the Karakoram range in Tibet
  4. Kunlun shan lies north of Tibet Plateau and south of Tarim basin
  5. Tien shan lies north of the Tarim basin
  6. Altai lies north of Tien shan & South of Kobdo Plateau.
  7. Arakan Yoma: It is in western Myanmar continues through Andaman and Nicobar islands, Sumatra, Java, and other Indonesian islands
  8. Hindukush: Runs westwards of Pamir knot to Elbrus
  9. Elbruz: Hindukush joins Armenian knot at Caspian sea
  10. Sulaiman Mountain (or Kōh-e Sulaymān ): Extends southwards of Pamir along with Pakistan and Afghanistan
  11. Kirthar Mountains: Sulaiman takes the name of Kirthar in the south. It noted as the boundary between the Pakistani provinces of Balochistan and Sindh.


  1. Ladakh plateau: An inter-montane plateau lies between the Karakoram and the Himalayas. It is a high-altitude cold desert plateau
  2. Tibet plateau: Located between Kunlun shah and the Himalayas. The largest plateau in the world (ht: 4250m)
  3. Yunan: Lies southeast of Tibet plateau
  4. Pamir: Located in the northwest of the Indian sub-continent. Meeting point for central Asian mountain ranges. It is known as the roof of the world with the highest altitude (4900m).
  5. Indo-china: Region of southeast Asia that extends over Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, and Myanmar
  6. Shan: Lies between Pegu Yoma and Arkan Yoma in eastern Myanmar. Salween river flows through the region. Region important for tin, tungsten, lead, silver, and Ruby stone
  7. Arabian mountain: It is a tilted block extending over the entire Arabian peninsula.
  8. Plateau of Anatolia: Euphrates and Tigris river flows through this region. It is also known as Asia minor of Turkey.


  1. Lake Baikal: Located in Eastern Serbia. Source of Lena river.
  2. Lake Balkhash: Located in Kazakhstan. North of it is the Karaganda coal basin.
  3. Lake Van: It is the largest lake in Turkey. The highest density of salt content found here.
  4. Aral sea: It is located between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan
  5. Dead sea: It is located in the west bank of Jordan. It is an example of Rift valley lake. Deepest points of Asia.
  6. Caspian sea: It is the largest lake in the world. It separates Europe and Asia.

Related: Important Lakes In India


  1. Manchurian plain: Formed by Amur river. Important cities located here are Ashan, Shenyang, Fushun
  2. West Siberian plain: Extends from the Urals to Yenisey river. One of the lowest lowlands.
  3. Rub-al-Khali: Known as empty Quarter. It is a large continuous sand desert of southern Saudi Arabia
  4. Dasht-I-Lut: Also known as the Barren desert of Iran
  5. Dasht-I-Kavir: The largest salt desert of the world in northern Iran.


  • East Flowing River (From North to South)
    1. Amur
    2. Yangtze: It is the Longest River of Asia in Szechuan basin. Shanghai and Wuhan are located on it. Flows from Tibetan plateau to East China sea
    3. Hwang Ho: Known as China’s sorrow. Flows through loess land. Flows from Tibetan plateau to Gulf of Bohai
    4. Si Kiang: Best known for silk production. A fertile river basin flows from Eastern Yunan to south China sea
  • North Flowing River ( west to east in Russia)
    1. Ob River: Flows from Altai mountains to Gulf of Ob
    2. Yenisey: flows from Tannuala mountains to Arctic ocean
    3. Lena: Flows from Lake Baikal to Arctic ocean

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